После доласка кући: облици и значења повратка у дејтонску Босну и Херцеговину

ДОИ: https://doi.org/10.2298/GEI1903523Z УДК 314.745.4(497.6)"199" Оригинални научни рад

  • Ondřej Žíla Институт за интернационалне студије, Факултет политичких наука - Универзитет Чарлс, Праг
    ondrej.zila@fsv.cuni.cz

Сажетак

Дејтонски споразум требало је да означи крај рата, враћање босанске државе на њен предратни мултиетнички састав и олакшану обнову суживота међу њеним конститутивним нацијама. Мировним споразумом било је предвиђено да људи који су били принуђени да напусте своје домове имају право на то да се слободно врате кући. Да би се то могло учинити, најважније одредбе биле су садржане у Анексу 7, који се фокусирао на организовање повратка избеглица и расељених лица. Повратак мањина је постао специјални инструмент за мерење успеха процеса изградње мира. С обзиром на то да се репатријација није остварила на начин на који је то међународна заједница предвидела, испуњење Анекса 7 је постало политички приоритет. Од 1999. године међународне организације (Канцеларија високог представника у БиХ, Високи комесаријат Уједињених нација за избеглице и друге) поставиле су повратак мањина као свој приоритет. Иако процес репатријације званично није био завршен, број повратника је био мали након 2006. године. И то више није представљало ничији приоритет, осим вербално, у политичке сврхе. У овом раду поставља се питање: под којим условима се може говорити да је повратак мањина био „успешан“? С обзиром на сложеност процеса репатријације, његову динамику, на чињеницу да нема повратка који се стварно завршава формалним усељавањем на предратну адресу, у овом раду се предлаже да категорије мањинске репатријације не би требало посматрати бинарно као „успешне“ и „неуспешне“, већ у континууму који тече од „потпуног“ до „непотпуног“ типа одрживог повратка и специфичних облика неодрживог („неуспешног“) повратка. На основу резултата теренских истраживања на одабраним босанским локацијама у периоду од 2010. до 2018. године, указујем на то да израз „повратак“ има више аспеката који утичу на његову одрживост и карактер.
Кључне речи: Босна и Херцеговина, повратак мањина, повратак интерно расељених лица, успех репатријације, одрживост повратка после етничког чишћења

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Објављено
30.01.2020.
Како цитирати
ŽÍLA, Ondřej. После доласка кући: облици и значења повратка у дејтонску Босну и Херцеговину. Гласник Етнографског института САНУ, [S.l.], v. 67, n. 3, p. 523–543, jan. 2020. ISSN 2334-8259. Доступно на:
<http://www.ei.sanu.ac.rs/index.php/gei/article/view/838>.
Датум приступа: 01 june 2020
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