Промена у праксама „бити заједно“ у транснационалним сродничким односима Горанаца

ДОИ: https://doi.org/10.2298/GEI1903501M УДК 314.375:316.356(497.115) Оригинални научни рад

  • Ivaylo Markov Институт за етнологију и фолклорне студије Етнографског музеја Бугарске академије наука, Софија
    ivaylo.markov@iefem.bas.bg

Сажетак

Рад има за циљ да проучи начинe на којe Горанци управљају својим породичним односима у простору и времену, испитујући континуитете и промене у њиховом стварању и доживљавању узајамног присуства услед развоја миграционих образаца и све комплекснијих транснационалних модела живљења. Динамика политичког, економског, друштвеног и других окружења такође се узима у обзир приликом анализе напора и праксе људи у одржавању породичних и сродничких веза. Аутор полази од претпоставке да чланови транснационалних породица траже и налазе начине да остваре (замишљено, преко посредника, виртуелног или физичког) заједништво и да одржавају своје везе живим и активним у простору и времену. У том смислу, користе се различити поступци и стратегије које се узајамно допуњују, као што су: сећање, машта, снови, поклони, сувенири, новчане пошиљке, комуникација на даљину и посете. Рад се заснива на етнографским подацима „из прве руке“ који су прикупљени током мултилокалног истраживања у одабраним селима подручја Горе (област порекла и окупљања) на Косову, као и у градовима Београд и Скопље – местима у којима многи Горанци раде и живе.
Кључне речи: Горанци, транснационална породица, узајамно присуство, комуникација на даљину, посета

Reference

Antonijević, Dragoslav. 1974. “Đurđevdanski folklor kao obeležje specifičnosti i zajednice etničkih grupa Prizrena.” U: Rad XIV kongresa Saveza folklorista Jugoslavije u Prizrenu 1967, 193–202. Beograd: Savez udruženja folklorista Jugoslavije.
Baldassar, Loretta 2008. “Missing Kin and Longing to be Together: Emotions and the Construction of co-Presence in Transnational Relationships.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 29 (3): 247–266. DOI: 10.1080/07256860802169196.
Baldassar, Loretta, Mihaela Nedelcu, Laura Merla & Raelene Wilding. 2016. “ICT-Based co-Presence in Transnational Families and Communities: Challenging the Premise of Face-to-Face Proximity in Sustaining Relationships.” Global Networks 16 (2): 133–144. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12108.
Baldassar, Loretta & Cora Baldock. 2000. “Linking Migration and Family Studies: Transnational Migrants and the Care of Ageing Parents.” In: Theoretical and Methodological Issues in Migration Research, ed. Biko Agozino, 61–89. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Baldassar, Loretta, Cora Vellekoop Baldock & Raelene Wilding. 2007. Families Caring across Borders: Migration, Ageing and Transnational Caregiving. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Basch, Linda, Nina Glick Schiller & Cristina Szanton Blanc. 1994. Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States, Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach.
Bielenin-Lenczowska, Karolina. 2010. “Transnational Ties among Migrants and their Families: The Case of Labour Migrants (Pechalbari) from the Republic of Macedonia to Italy.” Kultura Polisa 13–14: 509–534. www.kpolisa.com/KP13-14/Pdf/kp13-14-VII-1-Karolina.pdf. (Accessed April 25, 2019).
Boccagni, Paolo. 2010. Exploring Migrants’ Affective Ties at a Distance: Is „Multisited“ Ethnography Enough? COMCAD Working Paper 72. Bielefeld: COMCAD – Center on Migration, Citizenship and Development, www.uni-bielefeld.de/tdrc/ag_comcad/downloads/workingpaper _72_Boccagni.pdf. (Accessed April 25, 2019).
Boccagni, Paolo & Loretta Baldassar. 2015. “Emotions on the Move: Mapping the Emergent Field of Emotion and Migration.” Emotion, Space and Society 16: 73–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.emospa.2015.06.009.
Boyd, Monica 1989. “Family and Social Networks in International Migration: Recent Developments and new Agendas.” International Migration Review 23 (3): 638–670. DOI: 10.2307/2546433.
Brettell, Caroline. B. 2003. Anthropology and Migration: Essays on Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and Identity. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Bryceson, Deborah & Ulla Vuorela. 2002. The Transnational Family: Global European Networks and New Frontiers. Oxford: Berg.
Cvijić, Jovan. 1931. Balkansko poluostrvo i južnoslovenske zemlje. Knjiga druga. Beograd: Državna štamparija.
Glick-Schiller, Nina, Linda Basch & Cristina Blanc-Szanton. 1992: “Transnationalism: A New Analytic Framework for Understanding Migration.” In: Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Nationalism Reconsidered, eds. Glick-Schiller, Nina, Linda Basch & Cristina Blanc-Szanton, 1–24. New York: New York Academy of Sciences.
Đorđević Crnobrnja, Jadranka. 2014. “Migracije iz Gore krajem dvadesetog i početkom dvadeset prvog veka.” Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU 62 (2): 35–46. DOI: 10.2298/GEI1402035D.
Đorđević Crnobrnja, Jadranka. 2015a. “I do Islanda su stigli” – ekonomska i politička migracija Goranaca iz Gore.” Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU 63 (3): 565–579. DOI: 10.2298/GEI1503565D.
Đorđević Crnobrnja, Jadranka. 2015b. “Crisis, Migrations, Culture. On the Influence of the Economic and Political Crisis on Migration Patterns of Gorani People and Changes to Their Culture.” In: Ethnologia Balkanica, 18 – Cultures of Crisis in Southeast Europe. Part 1: Crises Related to Migration, Transformation, Politics, Religion, and Labour, eds. Roth, Klaus & Asker Kartari, 54–65. Berlin: LIT Verlag.
Đorđević Crnobrnja, Jadranka. 2018. “Migracije, integracija i bračna praksa kod Goranaca.” Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU 66 (3): 581–600. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/GEI1803581D
Hannerz, Ulf. 1996. Transnational Connections: Culture, People, Places. London: Routledge.
Hasani, Harun. 1995. “Migracije stanovništva Gore.” U: Šarplaninske župe Gora, Opolje i Sredska: antropogeografsko-etnološke, demografske, sociološke i kulturološke karakteristike, ur. Antonijević, Dragoslav & Milovan Radovanović. Posebna izdanja Etnografskog instituta SANU, 149–166. Beograd: Geografski institut „Jovan Cvijić“ SANU.
Hasani, Harun. 2002. “Migrations of the Population of the Šar Mountain Župa Gora.” In: Goranies, Muslims and Turks in the Šar (Shar) Mountain Župas (Parishes) of Serbia, eds. Antoniević, Dragoslav et al., 33–44. Beograd: Geographical Institut „Jovan Cvijić” SASA.
Hasani, Harun. 2007. “Migrations of Goranies.” In: Kosovo and Metohija. Living in the Enclave, ed. Bataković, Dušan T., 33–44. Beograd: Institute for Balkan Studies SASA.
Hasani, Harun. 2011. “Goranies: A Respected Minority in Serbia, a Persecuted Minority in Present-Day Kosovo.” In: Minorities in the Balkans. State Policy and Interethnic Relations (1804–2004). Special editions 111, ed. Bataković, Dušan T., 311–322. Belgrade: Institute for Balkan Studies SASA.
Hristov, Petko. 2010. “Gurbet on the Balkans – Traditional and Contemporary Forms.” In: Balkan Migration Culture: Historical and Contemporary Cases from Bulgaria and Macedonia, ed. Hristov, Petko, 28–43. Sofia: Paradigma.
Hristov, Petko. 2014. “Seasonal Labour Migrations (Gurbet) in the Central Balkans and their Associated Ritual Cyclesˮ. In: The Ritual Year 8. Migrations, eds. Parusheva, Dobrinka & Lina Gergova, 108–118. Sofia: Paradigma.
Hristov, Petko. 2015. “The Balkan Gurbet: Traditional Patterns and New Trends.” In: Migration in the Southern Balkans: From Ottoman Territory to Globalized and Nation States, eds. Vermeulen, Hans, Martin Baldwin-Edwards and Riki van Boeschoten. IMISCOE Research, 31–46. Dordrecht: Springer.
Ivanov, Jordan. 1993. “Zapadnite kraiŝa na Makedoniâ v etnografičesko otnošenie.” V Naučna ekspediciâ v Makedoniâ i Pomoravieto 1916 g., red. Petrov, Petʺr, 136–150. Sofiâ: Universitetsko izdatelstvo „Sv. Kliment Ohridski”.
Janta, Hania, Scott A. Cohen & Allan M. Williams. 2014. “Rethinking Visiting Friends and Relatives Mobilities.” Population, Space and Place 21 (7): 585–598. DOI: 10.1002/psp.1914.
Konstantinov, Duško. 1964. Pečalbarstvo. Bitola.
Kʺnčov, Vasil. 1900. Makedoniâ. Etnografiâ i statistika. Sofiâ: BKD.
Levitt, Peggy 2001. The Transnational Villagers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lieblich, Amia Rivka, Tuval-Maschiach & Tamar B. Zilber. 1998. Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis and Interpretation. London: Sage.
Lutovac, Milisav. 1955. “Gora i Opolje – antropogeografska proučavanjaˮ. Srpski etnografski zbornik, knj. LXIX; Naselja i poreklo stanovništva, knj. 35: 229–339. Beograd: Srpska akademija nauka.
Madianou, Mirca. 2016. “Ambient co-presence: transnational family practices in polymedia environments.ˮ Global Networks 16 (2): 183–201. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12105.
Madianou, Mirca and Daniel Miller. 2012. “Polymedia: Towards a New Theory of Digital Media in Interpersonal Communication.ˮ International Journal of Cultural Studies 16 (2): 169–187. DOI: 10.1177/1367877912452486.
Marcus, George. E. 1995. “Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography.” Annual Review of Anthropology 24 (1): 95–117.
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.000523.
Markov, Ivaylo. 2013. “Migration, Remittances and Socio-Cultural Dynamics: the Case of Albanians from the Republic of Macedonia.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 13 (2): 245–264. DOI: 10.1080/14683857.2013.802176.
Markov, Ivajlo. 2015. Migracii i socio-kulturna dinamika: albancite ot Republika Makedoniâ. Sofiâ: Gutenberg.
Mason, Jennifer. 2004. “Managing Kinship over Long Distances: the Significance of ‘the Visit’.” Social Policy and Society 3 (4): 421–429. DOI: 10.1017/S1474746404002052.
Massey, Douglas S. et al. 1993. “Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal.” Population and Development Review 19 (3): 431–466.
Mladenović, Radivoje. 2001. Govor šarplaninske župe Gora. Srpski dijalektološki zbornik, XLVIII. Beograd: Institut za srpski jezik SANU.
Nazarska, Georgeta & Marko Hajdinjak. 2011. “Mixed and Transnational Families in Bulgaria.” In: Migrations, Gender and Intercultural Interactions in Bulgaria, ed. Marko Hajdinjak, 111–153. Sofia: IMIR.
Nedelcu, Mihaela. 2012. “Migrantsʼ New Transnational Habitus: Rethinking Migration Through a Cosmopolitan Lens in the Digital Age.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38 (9): 1339–1356. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2012.698203.
Nedelcu, Mihaela & Malika Wyss. 2016. “‘Doing Family’ through ICT-Mediated Ordinary Co-Presence: Transnational Communication Practices of Romanian Migrants in Switzerland.” Global Networks 16 (2): 202–218. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12110.
Palairet, Michael. 1987. “The Migrant Workers of the Balkans and Their Villages (18th Century – World War II).” In: Handwerk in Mittel-und Südosteuropa. Mobilität, Vermittlung und Wandel im Handwerk des 18. bis 20. Jahrhunderts, ed. Klaus Roth, 23–46. Munich: SOG.
Roberts, Brian. 2002. Biographical Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Schmidinger, Thomas. 2013. Gora: Slawischsprachige Muslime zwischen Kosovo, Albanien, Mazedonien und Diaspora. Wien: Wiener Verlag für Sozialforschung.
Seliŝev, Afanasij. 1929. Polog i ego bolgarskoe naselenie. Istoričeskie, etnografičeskie i dialektologičeskie očerki severo-zapadnoj Makedonii. Sofiâ: Makedonski naučen institut.
Svašek, Maruška. 2008. “Who Cares? Families and Feelings in Movement.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 29 (3): 213–230. DOI: 10.1080/07256860802169170.
Svašek, Maruška. 2010. “On the Move: Emotions and Human Mobility.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (6): 865–880. DOI: 10.1080/13691831003643322.
Tončeva, Veselka. 2012. Nepoznatata Góra. Sofiâ: Rod.
Trifunovski, Jovan. 1952. Urvič i Јelovјane: dva torbeška sela u Pologu. Glasnik etnografskog instituta SAN 1 (1–2): 409–419.
Urry, John. 2002. „Mobility and Proximity”. Sociology 36 (2): 255–274. DOI: 10.1177/0038038502036002002.
Vertovec, Steven. 2009. Transnationalism. London and New York: Routledge.
Vertovec, Steven & Robin Cohen (eds.) 1999. Migration, Diasporas and Transnationalism. Cheltenham, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Vickers, Miranda. 1998. Between Serb and Albanian: A History of Kosovo. London: Hurst&Co.
Објављено
30.01.2020.
Како цитирати
MARKOV, Ivaylo. Промена у праксама „бити заједно“ у транснационалним сродничким односима Горанаца. Гласник Етнографског института САНУ, [S.l.], v. 67, n. 3, p. 501–522, jan. 2020. ISSN 2334-8259. Доступно на:
<http://www.ei.sanu.ac.rs/index.php/gei/article/view/837>.
Датум приступа: 01 june 2020
Секција
Тема броја