Жене у миграцији: Белешке са западно-балканске руте

DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/GEI1703559I UDC 314.7-055.2(497) Original scientific paper

  • Tina Ivnik (Slovenia) Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Arts – University of Ljubljana
    tinaivnik@gmail.com

Сажетак

Иако се то често превиђа, род је важан фактор у истраживању миграција. Жене улазе у
искуство миграција као активни појединци, али се срећу са другачијим тешкоћама
него мушкарци. Иако се не може тврдити да све ове тешкоће све жене доживљавају на
исти начин, може се закључити да су оне последица родно структуриране реалности у
којој живимо. Овај текст се бави родно специфичним искуствима које мигранткиње
имају на свом путу. Фокусира се на различите облике насиља са којима се срећу и
искуствима трудница. Рад се даље бави законодавством које се односи на избеглице и
покушава да укаже како ово законодавство индиректно креира опасности за
мигранткиње, док их, у исто време, лишава моћи и виктимизира их. Ово се заснива на
виђењу законодавства као маскулиноцентричног, што значи да је већином обликовано
на основу искустава мушкараца и да често не разматра посебна искуства и потребе
жена. Грађа на којој се базира интерпретација добијена је из неструктурираних и
полуструктурираних интервјуа сакупљених током теренских истраживања у три
избегличка центра у Србији. Интервјуи су се већином концентрисали на искуство жена и на етапу путовања западно-балканском рутом. Они су анализирани уз помоћ
релевантне антрополошке и сродне литературе.



Кључне речи: Србија, жене, миграција, трудноћа, избеглице.

Reference

Amnesty International. 2016. “Female refugees face physical assault, exploitation
and sexual harassment on their journey through Europe.” Accessed: 4.
March 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2016/01/femalerefugees-
face-physical-assault-exploitation-and-sexual-harassment-ontheir-
journey-through-europe/
Bajt, Veronika, and Mojca Pajnik. 2014. “Studying migration in Slovenia: The need
for tracing gender.” In Women in New Migrations: Current Debates in European
Societies, eds. Krstyna Slany, Maria Kontos and Maria Liapi, 299-
322. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press.
Bolumar, Francisco, Alicia Liacer, Maria Victoria Zunzunegui, Julia del Amo and
Lucia Mazarrasa. 2007. “The contribution of a gender perspective to the
understanding of migrants’ health.” Journal of Epidemiology & Community
Health 61(2): 4-10.
Browner, Carole H. 2000. “Situating Women's Reproductive Activities.” American
Anthropologist 102(4): 773-788.
Buijs, Gina. 1993. “Introduction.” In Migrant women: Crossing Boundaries and
Changing Identities, ed. Gina Buijs, 1-21. Oxford, Washington, D.C.:
Berg.
Calavita, Kitty. 2005. Immigrants at the margins: Law, race and exclusion in
southern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Calavita, Kitty. 2006. “Gender, Migration, and Law: Crossing Borders and Bridging
Disciplines.” International Migration Review 40(1): 104-132.
Centar za zaštitu i pomoć tražiocima azila. Accessed: 20. May 2016.
http://azilsrbija.rs/azil/
Cook, Rebecca J. 1993. “International Human Rights and Women's Reproductive
Health.” Studies in Family Planning 24(2): 73-86.
Cook, Rebecca J. 1995. “Gender, Health and Human Rights.” Health and Human
Rights 1(4): 350-366.
Cranford, Cynthia and Pierrette Hondagneu-Sotelo. 2006. “Gender and Migration.”
In Handbook of the Sociology of Gender, ed. Janet Saltzman Chafetz, 105-
126. New York: Springer.
Cukut Krilić, Sanja. 2009. Spol in migracija: Izkušnje žensk kot akterk migracij.
Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU.
De Genova, Nicholas. 2002. “Migrant "Illegality" and Deportability in Everyday
Life.” Annual Review of Anthropology 31: 419-447.
Directorate, General for Internal Policies. 2016. “Reception of female refugees and
asylum seekers in the EU: Case study Germany.” Accessed: 1. March 2016
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/supporting-analyses
Doctors of the World 2014. Access to Healthcare in a Europe in a Time of Crisis
2014: Focus on Women and Children. Accessed: 10. August 2014
http://issuu.com/dotw/docs/mdm_2014_eu_report_access_to_care
European parliament. 2016. “Reception of female refugees and asylum seekers in
the EU: Case study Germany.” Accessed: 1. March 2016.
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/536497/IPOL
_STU(2016)536497_EN.pdf
Eurostat. 2015. Asylum statistics. Accessed: 8. September 2015.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/
index.php/Asylum_statistics
Federici, Silvia. 2004. Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation.
Brooklyn: Autonomedia.
Freedman, Jane. 2012. “The Feminisation of Asylum Migration From Africa: Problems
and Perspectives.” In African Migration: Patterns and Perspectives,
eds. Leedy, Todd. H. and Abdoulaye Kane, 211-230. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press.
Hitchcox, Linda. 1993. “Vietnamese Refugees in Hong Kong: Behaviour and Control.”
In Migrant Women: Crossing Boundaries and Changing Identities,
ed. Gina Buijs, 145-161. Oxford, Washington, D.C.: Berg.
Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. 1992. “Overcoming Patriarchal Constraints: The Reconstruction
of Gender Relations among Mexican Immigrant Women and
Men.” Gender and Society 6(3): 393-415.
IOM. 2009. “Maternal and child healthcare for immigrant population.” Accessed:
30. April 2014. http://www.migrant-healtheurope.org/files/Maternal%
20and%20Child%20Care_Background %20Paper (1).pdf
IOM. 2016. “Mediterranean Migrant Arrivals in 2016 Pass 76,000; Deaths Top
400.” Accessed: 4. March 2016
https://www.iom.int/news/mediterranean-migrant-arrivals-2016-pass-
76000-deaths-top-400
Juhart, Iva and Larisa Petrič 2016. “Zahodnobalkanska migracijska pot: Srbija kot
zadnja točka pred vstopom v »boljši jutri«.” In Balkanska migracijska pot:
Od upora na mejah do striptiza humanizma, eds. Uršula Lipovec Čebron
and Sara Pistotnik, 290-307. Ljubljana: Mirovni Inštitut.
Kofman, Eleonore. 1999. “Female 'Birds of Passage' a Decade Later: Gender and
Immigration in the European Union.” The International Migration Review,
33 (2): 269-299.
McWilliams, Monica. 1998. “Violence Against Women in Societies Under Stress.”
In Rethinking violence against women, eds. Rebecca Emerson Dobash in
Russell P. Dobash, 111-141. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage
publications.
Meh, Ela. 2016. “Evropska migracijska politika in ustvarjanje kategorije “migrant”
v Srbiji.” In Balkanska migracijska pot: Od upora na mejah do striptiza
humanizma, eds. Uršula Lipovec Čebron and Sara Pistotnik, 267-290.
Ljubljana: Mirovni Inštitut.
Mladowsky, Philipa. 2007. “Migrant health in the EU.” Eurohealth 13(1): 9-11.
Morokvašić, Mirjana. 1984. “Birds of Passage are also Women.” The International
Migration Review, 18 (4): 886-907.
Mozetič, Polona. 2016. “Kaznovanje prosilcev za mednarodno zaščito zaradi izbire
države azila.” In Balkanska migracijska pot: Od upora na mejah do striptiza
humanizma, eds. Uršula Lipovec Čebron and Sara Pistotnik, 159-180.
Ljubljana: Mirovni Inštitut.
No Border Serbia. 2015. “Police and state terror on the border between Serbia and
Hungary.” Accessed: 20. May 2016
https://noborderserbia.wordpress.com/page/6/
Pajnik, Mojca and Bajt Veronika. 2009. “Improving Civic Participation of Female
Migrants.” In Integration of Female Immigrants in Labour Market and Society:
A Comparative Analysis, ed. Maria Kontos, 24-20. Accessed: 8. September
2015.
http://www.femipol.uni-frankfurt.de/docs/femipol_finalreport.pdf
Papadopoulos, Dimitris and Vassilis Tsianos. 2008. “The Autonomy of Migration:
The Animals of Undocumented Mobility”. In Deleuzian Encounters: Studies
in Contemporary Social Issues, eds. Anna Hickey-Moody in Peta Malins,
223-235. New York: Palgrave.
Rapp, Rayna. 2001. “Gender, Body, Biomedicine: How Some Feminist Concerns
Dragged Reproduction to the Center of Social Theory.” Medical Anthropology
Quarterly 15(4): 466-477.
Stojić Mitrović, Marta. 2014a. “Serbian migration policy concerning irregular migration
and asylum in the context of the EU integration process. Issues in
Ethnology and Anthropology 9(4): 1075-1090.
Stojić Mitrović, Marta. 2014b. “Presenting as a Problem, Acting as an Opportunity:
Four Cases of Socio-Political Conflicts Taking the Presence of Migrants as
a Focal Object in Serbia.” Glasnik Etnografskog instituta SANU LXII (1):
66-82.
UNHCR. 2016. “Report warns refugee women on the move in Europe are at risk of
sexual and gender-based violence.” Accessed: 4. March 2016.
http://www.unhcr.org/569f99ae60.html
Van der Zee, Renate. 2016. “Life as a female refugee: 'You don't know who to
trust'.” Accessed: 4. March 2016.
http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/02/life-female-refugeedon-
trust-160210092005932.html
Zincone, Giovanna. 2000. “A Model of "Reasonable Integration": Summary of the
First Report on the Integration of Immigrants in Italy.” International Migration
Review 34(3): 956-968.

Примљено / Received: 21. 03. 2017.
Прихваћено / Accepted: 06. 11. 2017.
Објављено
20.02.2001.
Како цитирати
IVNIK (SLOVENIA), Tina. Жене у миграцији: Белешке са западно-балканске руте. Гласник Етнографског института САНУ, [S.l.], v. 65, n. 3, p. 559-572, feb. 2001. ISSN 2334-8259. Доступно на:
<http://www.ei.sanu.ac.rs/index.php/gei/article/view/207>.
Датум приступа: 19 sep. 2018
Секција
Тема броја